History of Arc Welding

History of Arc Welding . Electric arc was first described by Davy in England in the year 1809, but the beginning of arc welding could become possible only with the improvements in electric dynamos or generators between 1877 and 1880. Auguste de Meritens established arc welding process in 1881 which was applied to join certain components of electrical storage batteries.

The joining of metals, using a carbon arc was suggested by Moissan (a Frenchman) in 1881, but it was only between 1885 and 1887 when, in Russia, Bernardos and Olszewski got patented and used single carbon arc welding for joining metals. In 1889 Zerener processed an idea, which aided later on to develop Twin Carbon arc welding.

In 1892, in Germany, N.G. Slavianoff proposed the use of bare wire metallic electrodes for joining metals. The arc being unshielded in this case, satisfactory welds could not be produced. In 1907, in Sweden, Oscar Kjellberg got a patent for covered electrodes. The coating which he employed contained only arc stabilizing materials, and thus a good welded joint was not obtained.

In 1912, in USA Strohmenger obtained another patent on covered electrodes and the first good welded joint was produced. Strohmenger used a coating of blue asbestos with sodium silicate as a binder. Since then a lot of changes and developments have occurred as regards the constituents of flux coating and core wire compositions. Covered electrodes were commercialized in the year 1929.

Arc and molten pool shielding, with an inert gas (CO<sub>2</sub>) was advented by Alexander in USA in the year 1928 and the patent for TIG welding was received by Hobart and Devers in 1930 in USA. First gas tungsten arc spot welding torch based upon TIG welding was introduced around 1946.
Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding came out in 1948 as a result of further researches and developments carried out on Covered Electrode Metal Arc and Tungsten Inert Gas welding processes. The credit for submerged arc welding goes to Kennedy, Rodermund and Jones (1935) of USA.
The atomic hydrogen welding was developed on the basis of the research carried out by Langmuir (1921, USA) on the dissociation of diatomic molecule in electric arc. Stud welding was found by Martin in 1918 and was used in British (Royal) Navy. Round about 1938:

Nelsen rediscovered this process in USA and in about 1958 Vanden Blink and others suggested the use of fusible collar in stud welding.Electroslag welding is a further development of Submerged arc welding and it came to appearance round about 1953 in Russia:

Plasma arc welding is a step ahead of TIG welding. It was developed in U.S.A. in the year 1953. Plasma cutting was used in 195: and satisfactory plasma spraying and plasma welding were carried out in 1960 and 1963 respectively



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